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Fruit Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts 2022

Fruit Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts 2022

Fruit Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts 2022

Fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants that is formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which flowering plants disseminate their seeds.

Importance

Fruits are an excellent source of essential vitamins and minerals, and they are high in fiber. Fruits also provide a wide range of health-boosting antioxidants, including flavonoids. Eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables can reduce a person’s risk of developing heart disease, cancer, inflammation, and diabetes.

What is a fruit? In a botanical sense, a fruit is the fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a flowering plant, enclosing the seed or seeds. Apricots, bananas, and grapes, as well as bean pods, corn grains, tomatoes, cucumbers, and (in their shells) acorns and almonds, are all technically fruits.

FRUITS

See the process to determine the ripeness of an apple. Learn what creates the distinctive taste and smell of one of the world’s favorite fruits. Contunico ZDF Enterprises GmbH, Mainz View all videos in this article

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Fruit, the dry-ripened or fleshy ovary of a flowering plant, enclosing the seed or seeds. Thus, apricots, bananas, grapes, bean pods, corn kernels, tomatoes, cucumbers, and (in their shells) acorns and almonds are all technically fruits. Popularly, however, the term is restricted to mature ovaries that are sweet and succulent or pulpy. For treatment of fruit crops, see Fruit Crops. To treat the nutrient composition and processing of fruits, see fruit processing.

Fruit Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts 2022

What is a fruit?

Fruit is a flowering plant’s mature or fleshy ovary enclosing the seed or seeds in a botanical sense. Apricots, bananas, grapes, bean pods, corn kernels, tomatoes, cucumbers, and (in their shells) acorns and almonds are technically fruits. Popularly, the term is restricted to ripe ovaries that are sweet and succulent or pulpy, such as figs, mangoes, and strawberries.

What are the dietary benefits of fruits?

Fruits are an essential dietary fiber, vitamins (especially vitamin C), and antioxidants.

What are the categories of fruits?

Generally speaking, there are two categories of fruits: fleshy fruits and dried fruits. Juicy fruits include berries, aggregate fruits, and multiple fruits; dried fruits include legumes, cereals, encapsulated fruits, and nuts.

How are fruits formed?

After fertilization or development without fertilization (parthenocarpy), changes occur in flower: the anthers and stigma wither, the petals fall off, and the sepals may become detached or modified; the ovary enlarges, and the ovules develop into seeds, each containing an embryonic plant. The primary purpose of the fruit (the mature ovary) is to protect and disseminate the source.

Botanically, a fruit is a mature ovary and its associated parts. It usually contains seeds, which have developed from the enclosed ovule after fertilization, although development without fertilization, called parthenocarpy, is known, for example, in bananas. Fertilization induces several changes in a flower: the anthers and the stigma wither, the petals fall off, and the sepals may detach or undergo modifications; the ovary enlarges, and the ovules develop into seeds, each of which contains a plant embryo.

Fruit Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts 2022
Fruit Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts 2022

The primary purpose of the fruit is the protection and dissemination of the source.Fruits are important sources of dietary fiber, vitamins (especially vitamin C), and antioxidants. Although fresh fruits are subject to spoilage, their shelf life can be extended by refrigeration or removing oxygen from their storage or packaging containers. The fruits can be processed into juices, jams, and jellies and preserved by dehydration, canning, fermentation, and pickling.

Waxes, such as those from blueberries (wax myrtles) and vegetal ivory from the thorny fruits of a species of South American palm ( Phytelephas macrocarpa ), are essential products derived from the fruit. Several drugs come from the fruits, such as morphine from the fruit of the opium poppy.

types of fruits

The fruit concept is based on a strange mixture of practical and theoretical considerations. It allows for cases where one flower yields several fruits (larkspur) and issues where several flowers cooperate to produce one fruit ( blackberry ). Head and bean plants, exemplifying the most straightforward situation, show a single pistil (female structure), traditionally considered a megasporophyll or carpel in each flower. The carpel is the evolutionary product of an originally leaf-like organ that bears ovules along its margin.

This organ was somewhat folded along the midline, with a joining and fusion of the margins of each half, the result being a miniature closed but hollow sheath with a row of ovules along the suture. In many members of the rose and buttercup families, each flower contains several similar, separate, and distinct single-carpel pistils, which together represent what is known as the apocarpous gynoecium.

In other cases, two to several carpels (still considered megasporophylls, though perhaps not always justifiably so) are assumed to have fused to produce a single gynoecium compound (pistil), whose basal part, or ovary, can be uninoculated (with a cavity) or plurilocular (with several compartments), depending on the method of fusion of the carpel.

Most fruits develop from a single pistil. A fruit resulting from a single flower’s gynoecium apocarpous (several pistils) may be called an aggregate fruit. Multiple fruits represent the gynecology of several flowers. When additional parts of the flower, such as the stem axis or floral tube, are retained or participate in the formation of the fruit, as in the apple or strawberry, an accessory fruit results.

Certain plants, mostly cultivated varieties, produce fruit spontaneously without pollination and fertilization; such natural parthenocarpy leads to seedless fruits such as bananas, oranges, grapes, and cucumbers. Since 1934, seedless fruits of tomato, cucumber, peppers, holly, and others have been obtained commercially by administering plant growth substances, such as indoleacetic acid, indolebutyric acid, naphthalene acetic acid, and β-naphthoxyacetic acid, to the ovaries of flowers (induced parthenocarpy).

Fruit Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts 2022
Fruit Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts 2022

Seedless watermelon A seedless watermelon. Scott Ehardt

Ripe fruit classification systems consider the number of carpels constituting the original ovary, dehiscence (opening) versus indehiscence, and dryness versus fleshiness. Noteworthy are the properties of the mature ovary wall or pericarp, which may become wholly or partially fleshy, fibrous, or stony. Three distinct layers of pericarp can often be identified: the outer (exocarp), the middle (mesocarp), and the inner (endocarp). All purely morphological systems (i.e., classification schemes based on structural features) are artificial. They ignore the fact that fruits can only be understood functionally and dynamically.fruit sortingstructure

main types to carpet two or more carpels

dry dehiscent follicle—At maturity, the carpel opens on one side, usually the ventral suture; milkweed, columbine, peony, delphinium, swamp marigold capsule – from the compound ovary, the seeds are shed in various ways, for example, through-holes (Papaver, poppies) or longitudinal slits (California poppy) or utilizing a cap (pimpernel); flower axis participates in Iris; snapdragons, violets, lilies, and many plant families

vegetables —Dehiscences along the dorsal and ventral sutures, forming two valves; most members of the pea family silicone —Bicarpellate, composite, superior ovary; the pericarp separates into two halves, leaving a persistent central septum with attached seeds or seeds; dollar plant, mustard, cabbage, rock cress, wallflower

silicic— A short silicone; shepherd’s purse, peppergrass

dry indehiscent peanut fruit – (atypical legume) walnut —Such as achene (see below); derived from 2 or more carpels, pericarp hard or stony; hazelnut, acorn, chestnut, linden

lomentum —A legume that fragments transversely into single-seeded ‘mericarps’; sensitive plant (Mimosa) schizocarp – collectively, the product of a compound ovary that fragments at maturity into several single-seeded ‘mericarps’; maple, hollyhocks, members of the mint family (Lamiaceae or Labiatae), geraniums, carrots, dill, fennel

achene —Small single-seeded fruit, relatively thin pericarp; free seed in cavity except for its funicular attachment; buttercup, anemones, buckwheat, crow’s foot, water plantain

Fruit Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts 2022

cypsela —Like a sore, but inferior compound ovary; members of the aster family (Asteraceae or Compositae), sunflowers

samara— A winged achene; elm, ash, tree of heaven, waffle ash

caryopsis— Like a pain; compound ovary; seed coat fused with pericarp; grass family (Poaceae or Graminae)

fleshy (pericarp partially or fleshy or fibrous) drupe —mesocarp fleshy, endocarp hard and stony; usually single-seeded; plum, peach, almond, cherry, olive, coconut

berry —Both mesocarp and endocarp fleshy; from a seed: nutmeg, date; one carpel, several seeds: baneberry, mayapple, barberry, Oregon grape; more carpels, various seeds: grape, tomato, potato, asparagus

pepo —Berry with hardshell; pumpkin, cucumber, gourd, watermelon

hesperidium —Berry with leathery skin; orange, grapefruit, lemon

structure

main types two or more carpels of the same flower plus stem axis or floral tubecarpels of various flowers plus stem axis or floral tube plus accessory parts

fleshy (pericarp partially or fleshy or fibrous) pome —Accessory fruit of the lower compound ovary; only the central part of the fruit represents the pericarp, with fleshy exocarp and mesocarp and cartilaginous or stony endocarp (‘core’); apple, pear, fifteen, hawthorn, mountain ash multiple fruits —Fig (a ‘syconium’), mulberry, osage orange, pineapple, flowering dogwood

Fruit Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts 2022
Fruit Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts 2022

lower berry 

Aggregate fleshy fruits —Strawberry (achenes born in a succulent container); blackberry, raspberry (collection of drupelets); magnolia

There are two broad categories of fruit: fleshy fruits, in which the pericarp and accessory parts develop into succulent tissues, as in eggplants, oranges, and strawberries; and dried fruits, in which the entire pericarp dries up at maturity. Fleshy fruits include:

  1. Berries, such as tomatoes, blueberries, and cherries, in which the entire pericarp and accessory parts are succulent tissue.
  2. Aggregate fruits, such as blackberries and strawberries, form from a single flower with many pistils, each developing into fruits.
  3. Multiple fruits, such as pineapples and blackberries, develop from the mature ovaries of an entire inflorescence. 

Nuts include legumes, cereal grains, cap fruits, and nuts.

As strikingly exemplified by the word walnut, popular terms often do not adequately describe the botanical nature of certain fruits. A Brazil nut, for example, is a thick-walled seed encased in an equally thick-walled capsule along with several sister seeds. A Coco is a drupe (stony-seeded fruit) with a fibrous outer part. Walnut is a drupe in which the pericarp has been differentiated into a fleshy outer shell and a hard inner shell; the flesh represents the seed: two large complex cotyledons, a tiny epicotyl and hypocotyl, and a thin, papery seed coat.

To peanut is an indehiscent legume. Almond is a stone of drupe; that is, the hardened endocarp typically contains a single seed. Botanically speaking, blackberries and raspberries are not actual berries but aggregates of tiny drupes. AT juniper The berry is not a fruit at all but the cone of a gymnosperm. Mulberry is multiple fruits made up of small nuts surrounded by fleshy sepals. And the strawberry represents a highly swollen receptacle (the tip of the flower stem that bears the flower parts) acting on its convex surface aggregation of tiny brown achenes (small single-seeded fruits.

Brazil Nut Hard is the indehiscent fruit of the Brazil nut tree ( Bertholletia excelsa ). The fruit on the left has been split open to reveal the large edible seeds in their shells. The tree is found in the Amazonian forests of Brazil, Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador. Fernanda Preto / Alamy

Fruit Definition, Description, Types, Examples, & Facts 2022

What is the name of fruit?

List of Fruit Names

EnglishHindiTamil
AppleSeb, SafarchandApple
ApricotKhubani
Avocado, Butter FruitMakhanphal
BananaKelaVazhaipazham

What is the name of all fruits?

Fruits from A-Z

  • Acerola – West Indian Cherry.
  • Apple.
  • Apricots.
  • Avocado.
  • Banana.
  • Blackberries.
  • Blackcurrant.
  • Blueberries.

What are the 8 fruits?

The fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control.

What is fruit and its types?

Table of fleshy fruit examples

TypeExamples
Simple fleshy fruitTrue berry, Stone fruit, Pome
Aggregate fruitBoysenberry, Lilium, Magnolia, Raspberry, Pawpaw, Blackberry, Strawberry
Multiple fruitFig, Osage orange, Mulberry, Pineapple
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Last update on 2022-05-19 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API

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