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How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers Ornamental Onions 2022

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

Care for Allium Flowers Ornamental Onions 2022

Allium is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes hundreds of species, including the cultivated onion, garlic, scallion, shallot, leek, and chives. The generic name Allium is the Latin word for garlic, and the type species for the genus is Allium sativum which means “cultivated garlic”.

  • Scientific name: Allium
  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Order: Asparagales
  • Tribe: Allieae

It has a phytotherapeutic effect such as diuretic, laxative, hypoglycemic and antiseptic and, used as homeopathic medicine, it has an action on different disorders at the level of the upper respiratory mucous membranes, the intestine and the nervous system.

Garlic ( Allium sativum )

  • Introduction
  • Synonymy
  • Composition
  • Properties and uses
  • clinical studies
  • Pharmacology/toxicology
  • experimental studies
  • conclusions
  • references
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The famous Garlic is a plant belonging to the lily family, from Central Asia, from where its cultivation spread throughout the world. Garlic is one of the most important medicinal plants, especially appreciated in the Far East[1][2][3]. Also, in the USA, it is one of the most used medicinal plants[4].

The knowledge and use of Garlic as a medicinal resource is ancient. Already in the Ebers Papyrus (1550 BC), healing effects (antitumor)[5][6] are attributed to the plant.

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers Ornamental Onions 2022

Already in times of Dioscorides, its use as a therapeutic resource was quite widespread. According to this author, the plant had healing properties, it would expel farting, it would be disturbing to the stomach, it would desiccate the stomach, it would generate thirst, and it would give rise to superficial ulcerations. Its therapeutic usefulness included the elimination of intestinal parasites and ectoparasites such as lice and nits, the bites of snakes and rabid dogs, the provocation of diuresis, and the sedation of cough in addition to various other applications.

The first scientific observations of Garlic begin with Luis Pasteur, who was the first author to describe the antibacterial effect of Garlic and onion[7]. Subsequently, experimental and clinical investigations have been taking place that has left us at the gates of possible future applications based on scientific evidence.

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

Garlic would exert its effects through more than 200 substances. This edible vegetable contains sulfur-containing compounds, such as allicin, alliin, and ajoene, volatile oils, enzymes (alliinase, peroxidase and myrosinase), carbohydrates (sucrose and glucose), minerals (selenium), amino acids such as cysteine, glutamine, isoleucine and methionine. that would help protect cells from free radicals, bioflavonoids such as quercetin and cyanidin, alistatin I and II and vitamins C, E and A that would help protect people from oxidation and free radicals, as well as other vitamins such as niacin, vitamins B1 and B2, as well as beta-carotene[1].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers Ornamental Onions 2022

As just indicated, among the components of Garlic are enzymes, such as alliinase and amino acids containing sulfides, including alliin, an odorless and tasteless substance, lacking therapeutic effects from which others would derive (allicin) due to the impact of the enzymes of the plant[8], when they are released by chewing, crushing or cutting the Garlic. Allicin would subsequently be transformed into other compounds with different biological properties, such as ajoene, vinylditin, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide.

Garlic has the particularity of presenting different properties depending on whether it is raw or cooked. If it is cut or crushed, alliin is released, transformed by the effects of alliinase into allicin. This transformation does not occur in Garlic if it is previously cooked, releasing other different substances, such as ajoene, which have different effects.

Allicin (diallylthiosulfide) is the main biologically active component of raw Garlic and is produced by the interaction between the amino acid alliin and alliinase[9]. Allitridine(diallyl trisulfide) is one of the main active compounds in Garlic [10]. S-allyl-mercapto cysteine ​​​​is an organosulfur derivative of Garlic, present in its alcoholic extract[11]. In addition to allicin (diallylthiosulfide) and ajoene, already mentioned, allylmethylthiosulfide, methylallylthiosulfide, alliin, deoxyalliin, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide can be found[12].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers Ornamental Onions 2022

Allicin contains hydrogen sulfide as a fundamental component, which, in theory, would facilitate the distension of vascular cells, which would reduce blood pressure, favoring the circulation and transport of oxygen through the blood.

Although Garlic gives rise to more than 20 sulfur compounds from a few amino acids, the function of each of them seems different from the others. Thus, allicin, methyl allyl trisulfide, and diallyl trisulfide have antibacterial, antithrombotic, and anticancer activity, respectively[13].

Diallyl trisulfide is a stable final compound of allicin degradation[14], which was synthesized in China in 1981 and used to treat infections by bacteria, fungi, and other pathogens.

The immunomodulatory proteins present in Garlic are the ASA I and ASA II lectins. These substances are very stable and have a tremendous immunogenic influence[15][16].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022
How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

Ajoene (4,5,9-tritiadodeca-1,6,11-triene-9-oxide) is a derivative of Garlic that has more excellent stability than allicin[6].

The antibiotic effect would be attributed to allicin, as would the hypoglycemic effect, to which allyl propyl disulfide and S-allyl cysteine ​​​​sulfoxide would contribute. In contrast, the anticancer effect would be related to diallyl monosulfide. The inhibition of platelet aggregation would be due to diallyl and triallyl sulfide compounds. Ajoene would inactivate gastric lipase, closely related to fat digestion and absorption. Diallyltetra, Hexa, and hepta sulfide compounds are potent antioxidants.

Garlic has traditionally been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, including bacterial and fungal infections[17][18], infestations by intestinal parasites, wounds, diarrhea, rheumatism, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases (thrombosis, hypertension, hyperlipidemia), and metabolic, among other disorders. Today, this plant is included in the traditional medicine of most cultures[19].

In the different formulations available for medicinal purposes, Garlic has also been used to relieve symptoms caused by prostate cancer and benign hypertrophy of this same organ[20]. However, the clinical evidence supporting these uses is fragile or lacking for all of the applications listed.

It is also popularly used or used as a mosquito repellent, anticatarrhal, hoarseness, and cough sedative. The topical application of Garlic is traditionally used to treat skin warts.

Different organizations, such as the German Commission E, recommend Garlic as an aid to dietary measures in patients with high levels of lipids in the blood and as a preventive measure for age-related vascular changes. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia attributes antibacterial properties to Garlic, considering it effective in respiratory infections and catarrhal states  of India recommends using Garlic as a brain tonic, suitable for mental disorders and epilepsy.

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022
How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

In some areas of the Arab world, inhalation of garlic stems is recommended to treat tuberculosis. In the same cultural sphere, there is a belief that eating garlic cloves daily is good for preventing colic, diarrhea, abdominal pain, diabetes mellitus, and inflammation. They also recommend boiling skinless garlic cloves, accompanied by cow’s milk, senna, bay leaf, and pepper to treat cold nephrosis and improve memory performance.

The ash from burnt garlic cloves would be used in this same culture to treat eye infections.

Garlic is one of the most used botanical therapeutic resources in the Arab world[21][22]. A study highlights that more than 10% of Jordanians suffering from diabetes mellitus take Garlic to remedy their diseases[23]. In Palestine, Garlic is also recommended to treat prostate cancer and hypertrophy[24]. Garlic is widely used as an antihypertensive[25].

In the traditional Bolivian culture, it is believed that the ingestion of garlic cloves is suitable for arteriosclerosis (three cloves of Garlic with honey in a cup of milk), cerebral vascular accidents, arterial hypertension, gastric and respiratory problems. At the same time, the soup of Garlic would be recommended for circulation and kidney problems.

They also recommend a glass of water with 20 drops of garlic tincture to treat bleeding, high blood pressure, palpitations, and varicose veins.

It is considered appropriate to rub Garlic on joints with rheumatic ailments in the Dominican Republic. In the other part of the island, in Haiti, the natives ingest a decoction of garlic bulbs, juices, or infusions of the plant to treat dermatitis, meteorism, itching, bronchitis, pneumonia, and other bronchopulmonary diseases. They also ingest the bulbs to treat high blood pressure or intestinal infestations.

In some areas of Mexico, it is popularly recommended to eat three cloves of Garlic in a glass of milk every morning to prevent malaria and tuberculosis. They also recommend Garlic as an emmenagogue.

In Peru, garlic cloves are eaten to treat arrhythmias, arteriosclerosis, other cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, thrombosis, stroke, etc.), diabetes mellitus, catarrhal states, malaria, menopause, and withdrawal syndrome of withdrawal the smoker. They also recommend rubbing the Garlic in areas sore from rheumatism, skin warts, vitiligo, itchy spots, etc.

In rural areas of Guatemala, Garlic is frequently used as an anthelmintic, often associated with conventional medications.

On the island of Trinidad, garlic decoction is ingested for high blood pressure, dyspeptic syndromes, and stomach pain in general. It is customary in some island regions to rub the woman’s abdomen in labor with Garlic to facilitate childbirth.

The inhabitants of Yucatan use garlic bulbs in milk or tomato juice to treat diabetes, rheumatism, and malaria. Keeping it for five days in alcohol, it is used in drops to treat asthma, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension.

In India, Garlic is popularly used to treat diabetes[27][28]. In Samahni Valley, Pakistan, juice from garlic bulbs is used as an anticancer medicine, contraceptive, and antihypertensive agent[29]. In the Sikh community-based in the UK, Garlic is one of the most widely used alternative medicines[30].

Medicinal use in Europe has also had many followers. Thus, it is widely used for various diseases[31]. In central Italy, a study concludes that Garlic is one of the most commonly used plants, especially as an anthelmintic[32][33].

Garlic is still used in British Columbia today to treat flea parasites in domestic animals (dogs, cats) in veterinary medicine. It is also used to treat ear ailments in animals and endoparasitosis[34][35].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022
How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

application forms

Garlic admits various forms of administration, such as raw ingestion of bulbs and leaves, tincture (20%, in 45% ethanol), essential oil, solution, or syrup, and in the form of fresh juice.

A systematic review identifies six reviews and meta-analyses on the clinical efficacy of Garlic. The evidence-based on controlled clinical trials does not seem to be convincing in the opinion of the authors of the investigation. In the case of hypercholesterolemia, the magnitude of the effect was considered small and probably of very little relevance. For high blood pressure, few studies were available, and the result was too small to be considered clinically significant. For other indications, no data were available to make any kind of clinical recommendation[36].

Some authors maintain that Garlic has therapeutic utility in patients with ischemic heart disease associated with diabetes[37]. A 12-week clinical trial with 70 diabetic patients with elevated blood fats showed a significant reduction in total and LDL cholesterol and elevation of HDL over baseline values, which was not observed in the group of patients treated with placebo. In the authors’ opinion, the results suggest a beneficial effect of Garlic in the short term in diabetic patients with altered blood fats[38].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers Ornamental Onions 2022

The use of a garlic preparation (Allicor) for 12 months seemed to significantly reduce cardiovascular risk at ten years in a clinical trial with 79 patients[39].

A systematic review of good methodological quality estimates that there is no scientific evidence beyond a reasonable doubt about the effectiveness of this vegetable in patients with the peripheral arterial disease[40].

A six-week trial in 30 patients with coronary heart disease showed a decrease in cardiac rate and load and better exercise tolerance 

A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 75 healthy volunteers showed no significant difference between Garlic and placebo concerning arterial pressure, arterial stiffness, or blood lipid levels[42]. Other authors, on the other hand, observe a lipid-lowering effect on the part of a preparation based on Garlic (Kwai], depending on the magnitude of the decrease in blood lipids on the importance of their previous elevation; the more significant the height of these, the more excellent descent[43].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers Ornamental Onions 2022

The vast majority of published placebo-controlled trials do not support a possible effect of Garlic in lipid-lowering therapy. The scientific evidence on the impact of the plant on arterial hypertension is notably insufficient in humans[44].

Other authors show their conviction that Garlic can normalize blood lipids, stimulate fibrinolytic activity, inhibit platelet aggregation, reduce arterial roughness and thickening, improve the structural alterations of these vessels related to aging, and arteriosclerosis, making lower blood pressure[3].

A study affirms that the continuous intake of high doses of garlic powder in dragees significantly reduces the increase in atherosclerotic plaque between 5 and 18% during 48 months of observation[45]. Other experts consider some suggestive evidence that the use of certain Garlic or onion formulations is accompanied by an improvement in risk factors in normal subjects and patients with arteriosclerosis[46].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers Ornamental Onions 2022

In the same sense, a review including numerous studies states that Garlic can normalize plasma lipids, stimulate fibrinolytic activity, inhibit platelet aggregation and reduce glucose and blood pressure, so the authors conclude that Garlic has a remarkable potential in the prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases. [19].

A clinical trial controlled against placebo, which included 60 patients with coronary disease, showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides, increasing HDL cholesterol and fibrinolytic activity[47].

A trial with 24 healthy volunteers treated for six weeks with 900 mg of garlic powder showed a decrease in postprandial triglycerides in the controls performed[48].

A review found that in 7 of 8 studies, which included more than 500 patients, a daily dose of 0.6-0.9 grams of garlic powder reduced cholesterol and triglyceride levels by 5-20%. The metabolic mechanisms of this reduction are unknown[49].

Effects on the common cold

A systematic review by the Cochrane Collaboration states that there is insufficient evidence of the possible effects of Garlic in the prevention and treatment of the common cold. However, some individual trials could support the opposite[50].

cancer risk

There is no credible evidence to support any effect of Garlic on cancer or a reduction in the risk of stomach, breast, endometrial, or lung cancer. However, minimal evidence favoring a reduced risk of cancer of the colon, prostate, esophagus, larynx, mouth, ovary, and kidney[51]. Overall, although the antitumor capacity of Garlic has been evaluated in animal models, it has not been well established in humans[52].

An observational study shows an inverse association between the consumption of Garlic and other similar vegetables and the risk of several common types of cancer[53]. However, it is not possible to infer a cause-and-effect relationship in this kind of study.

high blood pressure

Although some studies show a positive effect on hypertension, there are insufficient data about its efficacy in this pathology[4].

A systematic review, using MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, selected ten studies that met the required methodological quality criteria, concluding that the therapeutic use of Garlic was associated with a reduction in systolic blood pressure in patients in whom this parameter was previously elevated. However, changes in diastolic blood pressure were not recorded[54].

An observational case-control study showed that patients whose blood pressure was in the low-pressure zone were associated with a greater likelihood of consuming more Garlic in their diet. The study recorded significantly lower values ​​only for systolic pressure[55].

carbohydrates/diabetes

There is a lack of sufficient scientific evidence based on quality clinical trials on the subject, so the use of Garlic for this purpose cannot be recommended[56]. There is no consensus regarding the use of Garlic as an antidiabetic agent, due not only to the lack of consistent scientific evidence but also to controversial data from animal experimentation[57].

A study in 18 healthy volunteers seems to indicate that Garlic, at dietary doses, does not alter the parameters related to platelet function and, therefore, does not increase the risk of bleeding in surgical interventions, even though it has been experimentally shown the inhibition of platelet aggregation by this plant[58][59].

A trial in five patients with this type of anemia, subjected to treatment with a garlic formulation, registered a decrease in Heinz bodies after four weeks of therapy, which, in the opinion of the authors, would reveal an antioxidant effect in the red blood cells of these patients[60][61].

antibacterial effect

Some publications indicate that Garlic has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity[62].

Arguments in favor of such an effect would include:

1. Garlic juice was effective against most intestinal pathogens responsible for gastroenteritis in humans and animals

2. Garlic is effective even in the case of strains resistant to antibiotics

3. The combination of Garlic with antibiotics produces a total or partial synergy between both components

4. A complete lack of resistance of germs to Garlic has been repeatedly observed

5. Garlic can even prevent the formation of toxins by microorganisms

A case has been published of a patient suffering from severe hepatopulmonary syndrome in which somatostatin treatment failed, and liver transplantation was rejected. At her own risk, the patient ingested large amounts of garlic powder daily. After 18 months of following this regimen, she experienced a partial improvement in her symptoms[63].

A preliminary 6-month study in 15 patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome treated with encapsulated garlic powder appeared to improve arterial oxygenation and symptomatology in six of the fifteen patients undergoing treatment[64].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

antiparasitic effect

An investigation aimed at evaluating the clinical usefulness of Garlic in the treatment of ascariasis to confirm the popular belief of its efficacy in this infestation has not shown a conclusive effect[65].

antifungal effect

After 25 ml of garlic extract ingest, significant antifungal activity is detected in the serum at 30 and 60 minutes but not in the urine. Hence, the trial authors consider that Garlic would have limited value in antifungal therapy

Garlic, in moderate doses, seems to be relatively safe and does not usually produce adverse reactions, except for possible allergic reactions, which in some people can be particularly severe, such as contact dermatitis and intense asthma attacks[8]. However, the possible acute or chronic toxicity due to the ingestion of large amounts of this plant or its extracts should not be lost sight of[46].

Compounds contained in Garlic can inhibit certain enzymes, so they should be used only in limited amounts

Some substances derived from Garlic, containing thiol groups (sulfur carriers), can cause acantholysis in vitro (Brenner et al., 1995) and possibly pemphigus in vivo.

More than five cloves of Garlic a day induce flatulence and gastroesophageal burning (Castleman, 1996), as well as an antiplatelet effect. The maximum tolerable dose has been established at 25 ml of garlic extract. More significant amounts can cause an intense esophageal or gastric burning sensation and vomiting[66]. Even at doses lower than the maximum recommended, Garlic can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Sulfur groups are local irritants and can cause gastrointestinal and skin disorders if applied locally.

Garlic is contraindicated in patients with hyperthyroidism. Commission E refers to rare gastrointestinal disorders with the medicinal use of Garlic, allergic reactions, and changes in breath and skin odor. Local application of Garlic or its essential oil can irritate at the point of application.

Raw Garlic is considered especially dangerous in children, who are very susceptible to the irritating effects of the plant.

Although no cases of severe drug interactions have been published, they are theoretically possible due to concurrent use with anticoagulants, anti-inflammatories, and other drugs with extensive hepatic metabolism (antiretrovirals, quinolones, macrolides, calcium channel blockers, antidepressants, imidazole antifungals, theophylline, antipsychotics, etc.).

Some data suggest that S-allyl mercapto cysteine ​​would exert its protective action by inhibiting the activity of CYP2E1[11].

The possible beneficial effect of Garlic in the prevention of thrombosis is based on the anti-cyclooxygenase development revealed in experimental studies. Raw Garlic would be more effective than cooked Garlic [68].

In vitro anti-aggregation induced by Garlic is always associated with allicin content and pyruvic acid levels. The results of a study suggest that the antiaggregant effect depends on the range of these substances. Crushing Garlic before moderate cooking can reduce activity loss, which could ultimately be offset by increasing the amount of Garlic ingested[69].

Diallyl disulfide and trisulfide show antiplatelet activity, inhibiting platelet thromboxane[47]. Thromboxane B2 levels were inhibited in laboratory rats, the form of administration of the plant being indifferent[70].

Ajoene, (E, Z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide, inhibits platelet aggregation in vitro, as well as its agonists, preventing thrombus formation[71].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022
How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

Antibacterial and antifungal effect

An experimental study on 132 extracts of plants popularly used in Argentina for medicinal purposes determined that one of those with the highest activity against penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was Allium Sativum, common Garlic [4]. In another in vitro study, it is shown that, except for Staphylococcus aureus, all bacteria isolated from wounds were inhibited in vitro by Garlic from concentrations of 37.5 mg[72].

The aqueous extract generally tends to show superior antibacterial activity to raw Garlic [73]. In another experimental work, it was observed that dehydrated Garlic, at concentrations of 1.5%, inhibits the growth of staphylococcus[74].

Multiresistant strains of Streptococcus mutans, obtained from teeth with caries, have shown sensitivity to garlic extract, which is why some authors propose incorporating it into toothpaste as a preventive agent against caries and for the treatment of periodontitis[75][76]. However, unpleasant taste, burning sensation, bad breath, and nausea limit its use. In contrast, there do not seem to be other strains of the oral flora sensitive to Garlic [77]. Gram-negative pathogenic germs that produce diarrhea were also susceptible to Garlic without finding resistant strains[78].

Regarding common germs in human pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most sensitive bacteria to Garlic, while Klebsiella is the least sensitive[79].

Garlic extract inhibits the development of Helicobacter Pylori at minimum concentrations of 2-5 mg/ml.

The aqueous extract of Allium Sativum has shown activity against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms and fungi[81][82]. This substance and allicin have demonstrated in vitro antibacterial activity against multiresistant strains of Shigella dysenteriae, Flexneri, Sonnie, and enteropathogenic Coli[83]. Thirty of mycobacteria were inhibited in their growth by various concentrations of garlic extract, ranging from 1.34 to 3.35 mg/ml[84].

According to the data of a study, all the pathogenic germs found in the food we’re sensitive to the effect of Garlic [85]. Another study indicates that Garlic has remarkable antibacterial activity against enteropathogens[86].

Garlic, administered orally, appears to partially reduce cryptococcal invasion of the mouse brain.

According to some experimental results, the methanolic extract of Garlic would have an effect against amoebae and acanthamoeba cysts[88]. Allicin has shown inhibitory activity on the growth of Entamoeba Histolytica[89]. Other results show that ajoene, associated with co-trimoxazole, is effective in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis[90]. Diallyl trisulfide exhibits antiparasitic activity against Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei, Tb Rhodesiense, Tb Gambiense, T. Evans, T. Congolese, and T. Equiperdum concentrations in the range of 0.8-5.5 mcg/ml MIC. The IC50 value was 59 mcg/ml for Entamoeba Histolytica and 14 mcg/ml for Giardia Lamblia[14].

A single dose of 50 mg/kg ajoene on the day of infection suppresses the development of parasitemia in mouse malaria[91]. At a concentration of 5 mg/ml, the oily extract of Garlic suppresses the infective capacity of trypanosomes in laboratory mice[92].

Several garlic derivatives have been shown to inhibit Giardia intestinal in vitro, especially allyl alcohol and allyl mercaptan[93]. The minimum lethal concentration of the aqueous extract of Garlic against Hymenolepis Nana was 1/20. The administration of the section to children with this parasite or Giardia Lamblia helped shorten the disease’s duration [94]. Bulbs of Allium Sativum have shown moderate anthelmintic activity in some in vitro studies[95].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers Ornamental Onions 2022

Garlic essential oil has shown a marked in vitro inhibition of the growth of Trichophyton Rubrum, Trichophyton Erinacei, and Trichophyton Soudanense, as well as a synergistic effect with ketoconazole[96]. Other species such as Candida and Malassezia have also been sensitive to garlic derivatives[97]. One study seems to show that diallyl trisulfide has in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus species, which would enhance the effect of amphotericin B[98].

Aqueous extract of Garlic at a dilution of 1/150 to 1/100 inhibits 50-90% of the strains of dermatophytes analyzed. By comparison, the dilutions required to achieve the same result with ketoconazole are 7 to 10 times lower[99]. However, in the case of otomycosis, the minimum concentrations of Garlic and conventional drugs are similar[100]. The extract concentrate has a potent antifungal effect against Cryptococcus Neoformans[101]. A study shows that Garlic, aziridine, and ajoene have in vitro activity against Scedosporium Prolificans[102].

Garlic reduces the adhesion of Candida Albicans to the oral epithelium, which could have some degree of clinical relevance[103].

One study shows that aziridine is active against human cytomegalovirus[104]. Garlic stimulates the body’s cellular defenses (macrophages) against leishmania[105]. Alitridine, one of the components of Garlic, would influence the prevention and treatment of hepatitis caused by cytomegalovirus[10]. Several derivatives of Garlic were studied with their virucidal capacity. In descending order of said activity, the scale is ajoene > allicin > allyl methyl disulfide > methyl allyl disulfide. No antiviral activity was observed for the rest of the garlic derivatives[12].

anti-toxic effect

Pretreatment of laboratory rats with Garlic or allicin reverses galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced liver damage[9][106]. On the other hand, garlic extract experimentally reduced kidney and other organ toxicity induced by cadmium[107][108]. Garlic appears to partially protect rats intoxicated with cadmium, methylmercury, and phenylmercury from visceral damage caused by these metal derivatives[109]. This extract probably exerts a protective effect against lethal hypoxia[110].

According to data from animal observation, Garlic would reduce the concentration of lead in the tissues of intoxicated animals[111]. It would also prevent liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride[112] and toxicity caused by arsenic[113].

S-allyl mercapto cysteine, administered after a toxic dose of paracetamol, suppresses hepatic necrosis and elevated transaminases, reducing the mortality of laboratory animals[11].

Some components of Garlic, such as the volatile oil and the compounds S-allyl-mercapto cysteine ​​​​and S-methyl-mercapto cysteine, have significant activity against the toxicity induced in hepatic tissues by carbon tetrachloride and galactosamine[114].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022
How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

neurological effects

An experimental observation concludes that Garlic can improve physical performance and learn in laboratory animals[115].

A significant improvement in memory function was observed in the passive avoidance test. Elevation of brain levels of 5-HT was associated with improved cognitive performance. These results seem to demonstrate that memory stimulation is related to an increase in that substance in rats[116].

Garlic extract showed a significant antidepressant effect, probably inhibiting MAO-A and B[117].

A food supplement with an oily extract of Garlic can counteract osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats, normalizing the biochemical markers of the disease[118]. Adding to the same, the results of one study suggest that Garlic could prevent bone loss due to ovarian deficiency, possibly by increasing calcium transfer through the intestine[119].

Hormonal/sexual effect

The aqueous extract of Garlic has spermicidal activity[120]. Animal models have also proven their efficacy in treating thyroxine-induced hyperglycemia[121].

Consumption of raw Garlic for a month reduces testosterone secretion and alters spermatogenesis in a dose-dependent manner[122].

The administration of an aqueous extract of Garlic for three months increased the weight of the seminal vesicles and the epididymis in male animals and the sperm count[123].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022
How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

antioxidant effect

Some observations on the Allium species show a powerful antioxidant effect due to its high concentration of flavonoids, carotenoids, and chlorophyll derivatives[124][125]. According to the results of an in vitro study, Garlic would contain substances with a remarkable anti-free radical capacity[126].

It has been observed that non-fresh garlic extracts have anti-free radical activity, which is not the case with fresh ones, being the compounds S-allyl cysteine ​​​​and S-allyl mercapto cysteine ​​​​are the most potent agents[2].

Some studies indicate that the essential oil of Garlic is an effective antioxidant in tissue damage caused by nicotine[127].

antitumor effect

Allium sativum can inhibit tumor growth (+74.35%) and increase life span (+42.4%) in mice[128]. Allicin, the primary component of fresh crushed Garlic and the most relevant from a biological point of view, induces apoptosis (cell death) of experimental tumors[129].

Some garlic-derived organosulfur compounds delay the growth of chemically induced tumors in some animal models[2].

Exposure of neutrophilic leukocytes to Garlic stimulates the synthesis of nitric oxide in these cells, which influences the production of IFN-alpha, which would be beneficial in viral infections and proliferative diseases, such as tumors[130].

An experimental study states that it would be necessary to carry out further research to identify the components of Garlic responsible for the curative and preventive effect of the vegetable on animal models of urinary bladder tumors. However, various authors consider that the responsible agents would be allicin and other sulfur compounds[131][132].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers Ornamental Onions 2022

For its part, diallyl sulfide would act on the HL-60 cell line, inducing cell death (apoptosis)[133]. It would also prevent the formation of malignant tumors induced by the substance 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxy in the tongue[134]. On the other hand, S-allyl mercapto cysteine ​​would prevent cell proliferation of colon cancer cells[135]. Garlic could stop the appearance of liver cancer in Wistar rats[136] and the carcinogenic effect of dimethylbenzoanthracene in hamsters[137]. Diallyl sulfide can delay tumor onset and reduce the number and proportion of mice-induced tumors [138].

In a research study, animals treated with subcutaneous garlic derivative for five weeks had a significantly lower tumor than those treated with saline[139].

When garlic extract was applied topically before DMBA, a skin tumor-causing substance, the incidence of skin tumors was reduced by 30-40%[140]. Topical application of ajoene produces a significant response in patients with basalomas. This garlic derivative also inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of various cell lines, enhancing the effect of cytarabine and fludarabine[6].

The administration of a dose of 200 mg/kg of diallyl sulfide (DAS) orally before the carcinogenic agent N-nitroso methyl benzylamine (NMBA) inhibits its nuclear toxicity by 56 to 64%. DAS has also been shown to inhibit tumor formation in rats treated with NMBA(141).

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers Ornamental Onions 2022

The authors of a study concluded that the compound S-allyl mercapto cysteine ​​exerts a significant antiproliferative action[142]. Previously, the same research group had shown that this substance inhibits cancer cell growth and causes apoptosis (cell death) in human colon cancer tissues (Shirin et al., Cancer Res., 61: 725-731, 2001). Diallyl sulfide would significantly induce cell death[143][144] and N-acetyltransferase activity[145]. Diallyl disulfide inhibits the leukemic cell line WEHI-3 in vivo[146].

The results of an observational study in animals indicate that the ingestion of Garlic inhibits the formation of intestinal cancer by the agent N-Ethyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine[147]. Allicin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells[148]. Diallyl sulfide inhibits nearly 3 out of 4 colorectal cancers caused by the compound dimethylhydralazine[149]. Diallyl sulfide inhibits N-acetyltransferase activity and gene expression in human colon cancer cells[150].

cardiovascular effects

Garlic dialysate has a significant antiarrhythmic effect in supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias[151]. Studies on an experimental model indicate that Garlic has a beneficial impact on the force of contraction, rhythm, and heart rate[152].

Allicin could influence arteriosclerosis as an antioxidant and through lipoproteins, modifying and inhibiting LDL cholesterol[153]. In any case, the influence of Garlic and its derivatives on blood fats is more significant the higher the dose administered[154].

Both garlic proteins and essential oil show a significant blood fat-lowering effect[155]. Regarding fats, the beneficial impact of Garlic is, at least in part, due to the inhibition it exerts on transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, HMG CoA reductase, and other enzymes[156].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022
How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

Allicin decreases the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet[157]. Garlic extract would prevent the rise in blood fats caused by an atherogenic diet[158].

Adding 2% or 3% garlic powder to an atherogenic diet lowered total cholesterol concentrations in experimental rats. Paradoxically, it decreased more in the animals that received 2% garlic than in those that received 3%[159].

Oral alcoholic extract of Garlic produced an antihypertensive effect in rats[160], while garlic dialysate produced a dose-dependent drop in minimum blood pressure and heart rate[161]. A single dose of Garlic has an antihypertensive effect in the rat between 2 and 6 hours after its administration, which could continue up to 24 hours after intake[162].

A diuretic effect of Garlic has been demonstrated in dogs through the intravenous administration of a purified fraction of the vegetable, which would reach its maximum about three hours after its administration[163]. Simultaneously, a reduction in blood pressure is observed. High doses of Garlic, above 15 mg/kg, caused bradycardia and ECG changes[164].

Some authors claim that the inclusion of Garlic in the diet can help lower glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides, based on experimental studies[165][166][167]. For other experts, Garlic in the diet could reduce oxidative stress, but they have not detected changes in cholesterol attributable to this vegetable[168].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers Ornamental Onions 2022

In mice with experimental diabetes, Garlic reduces polyphagia and polydipsia but does not significantly alter hyperglycemia or hypoinsulinemia[169]. Other authors conclude that Garlic would reduce the postprandial hyperglycemic peak[170].

A study in rats with alloxan diabetes shows that S-allyl cysteine ​​​​sulfoxide improves the situation comparable to glibenclamide and insulin[171]. The administration of a dose of 200 mg/kg of S-allyl cysteine ​​​​sulfoxide would decrease the concentration of fats, glucose, and the activity of liver enzymes in the blood[172].

Garlic administration decreases oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia, thus delaying the progression of lens opacification in diabetic rats[173].

Data from one study suggest that fresh garlic homogenate improves nephropathy in mice with experimental streptozocin diabetes[174].

In the experimental model studied, the oral treatment of diabetic rats with Allium sativum and other plants lowers blood glucose levels, reactivates antioxidant enzymes, and modifies others. According to these results, the effect would be comparable to that of glibenclamide. The authors conclude that Garlic has a hypoglycemic effect and decreases oxidative overload in experimental diabetes mellitus[175].

Another experimental study concludes that the petroleum-ether extract of Garlic and this crude vegetable have a specific hypoglycemic effect, which is not observed in the alcoholic section [176].

Treatment of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes by repeated administration of Garlic can bring biochemical parameters to average values and reduce diabetes-induced liver and kidney damage[177].

From a panel of various medicinal plants studied, only Garlic could significantly lower blood glucose compared to the control group[178].

Compared with oral antidiabetics, the effect of Garlic was superior to that of glibenclamide.

ACE activity is higher in diabetic rats than in normal rats, but in animals treated with Garlic, the enzyme is not elevated compared to controls[180]. The study’s authors consider that garlic extract may have value in preventing certain vascular complications of diabetes mellitus.

The potential use of Garlic derives from its action on the production of cytokines, substances that are involved in inflammatory processes, particularly inflammation of the small intestine[181].

Garlic pretreatment suppresses chemically induced chromosomal aberrations in albino mice.

The garlic derivative S-allyl cysteine ​​​​sulfoxide has shown a protective effect in albino mice against radiation-induced by a source of cobalt 60, reducing mortality caused by this agent. On the other hand, the essential oil of Garlic prevents the elevation of fats induced by radiocalcium[183].

How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022
How to Grow & Care for Allium Flowers (Ornamental Onions) 2022

immunostimulating effect

The results of one study support a robust immunostimulatory effect of Garlic, manifested by an increase in cellular immunity parameters (percentage of phagocytic cells, NBT-positive granulocytes, and lysozyme level[184].

Oral Garlic can favor the humoral response via cytokines[185]. At doses of 200 mcg/mL, it alters the phagocytic capacity of blood cells[186].

The results of a study indicate that the two major proteins present in raw Garlic, QR-2 and QR-1, contribute to the immunomodulatory activity of the plant, which would be very similar (if not identical) to the agglutinins ASA I and II[187].

Common Garlic, Allium Sativum, is one of the best-studied medicinal plants, if not the most. Despite numerous indications of its possible therapeutic value, neither its clinical applicability nor its safety in use has been reliably established. For this reason, at MEDIZZINE, we cannot recommend Garlic as a medicinal resource. The possible toxic effects of the plant and its contraindication in children should be considered.

Do alliums come back every year?

Most alliums are perennials. If the species you are planting is winter hardy and the bulbs are well-suited to the growing conditions in your yard, they will usually return to bloom again.

What is Allium used for?

The economically most important Allium crop species (common onion and garlic) are worldwide used as spices, vegetables, and medicinal plants. Traditionally, they play a very important role in the daily diet also in Asia. Here they can be seen under cultivation in every home garden.

Are alliums poisonous?

While alliums are fine for human consumption, they are poisonous to dogs and cats. … Additionally, if you see a plant growing wild that appears to resemble an allium, do not eat it, as it could be a dangerous look-alike.

Can you eat alliums?

Edible alliums are really useful in the kitchen, they include versatile vegetables such as onions (Allium cepa), shallots (Allium cepa Aggregatum Group), garlic, and leeks and herbs such as, chives (Allium schoenoprasum) and wild garlic (Allium ursinum) which make great garnishes in salads, soups and many other dishes.

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Last update on 2022-05-21 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API

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