Rose Apple Origin, description, Cultivation, Care, Properties 2022
Syzygium Samarangense is a species of flowering plant in the family Myrtaceae, native to an area that includes the Greater Sunda Islands, Malay Peninsula, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, but introduced in prehistoric times to a wider area and is now widely
cultivated in the tropics.
Scientific name: Syzygium Samarangense
Syzygium samarangense is a species of flowering plant in the family Myrtaceae, native to an area that includes the Greater Sunda Islands, Malay Peninsula and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, but introduced in prehistoric times to a wider area and now widely cultivated in the tropics.
- Scientific name: Syzygium samarangense
- Family: Myrtaceae
- Order: Myrtales
- Kingdom: Plantae
The rose apple is a leafy tree native to tropical Asia, cultivated in most tropical countries. It has an edible fruit with excellent nutritional and medicinal properties, which, like its bark, roots and leaves, can also be used. In some cases, it is cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant.
Origin of the Rose Apple
It is a tree from tropical South America and Asia, naturalized and cultivated in the Antilles, where the English introduced it. It has been considered an invasive species in continental tropical America and Cuba. They grow in dense stands, especially in streams, along rivers, and on wet slopes.
It is a small tree about 10 meters high. Its trunk measures up to 2 dm in diameter, highly branched, with brown, grey, and smooth bark. Its leaves are simple, bright pale green, measuring 10 to 25 x 3 to 5 cm, with a narrow base and pointed apex, protruding nerves on the underside, with 5 to 9 cm long petioles.
The flowers are large and cluster in terminal corymbs of 4 or 5, showing a turbinate calyx, with four broad, oval sepals and four concave and oval white and somewhat greenish petals, measuring 1 to 1.5 cm long, with significant glandular points and numerous white stamens 3 to 4 cm long.
Its fruit is a berry with a diameter of 2 to 5 cm, round, with the lobes of the calyx at the apex in the form of a crown, its colour is greenish-yellow and sometimes with somewhat reddish tones, with a white pulp that is not very juicy, thick and firm, which appear four months after flowering. Occasionally it has one or up to 3 large loose seeds, rounded, 1 cm in diameter and brown.
Rose Apple Botany
The rose apple is also known as “palmarosa”, “jambolero”, “Yambo”, “water apple”, “apple flower”, among others, which belongs to the Myrtaceae family, which bears the scientific name Syzygium Jambos, which was described by the botanist L. Alston.
Rose Apple Varieties
Among its varieties of species, we can find the following.
- Eugenia decorates Salisb.
- Jambos L. basonimo Eugenia.
- Eugenia jamboides Wender.
- Malaccensis White Eugenia.
- Eugenia jambosa Crantz.
- Eugenia malaccensis f. cericarpa
- Jambos jambos L. Millsp.
- Eugenia monantha Merr.
- Eugenia vulgaris Baill.
- Jambosa jambos L. Millsp.
- Syzygium monanthum Merr. & LM Perry.
- Jambosa vulgaris DC.
- Jambosa malaccensis f. cericarpa O.Deg.
- Jambosa palenbanica Blume.
- Jambos L. Kunth Plinia.
- Jambos LM Gomez.
- Syzygium merrillii Masam.
- Syzygium jambos var. Linearrilimbum HT Chang & RH Miao.
It reaches a size of 10 to 25 meters in height and 3 to 5 cm wide, leaves 10 to 25 cm long and 3 to 5 cm wide, with large flowers and fruits of about 2 to 5 cm in diameter.
A greyish-brown bark identifies it, and the flowers are yellowish-white. Its fruits are pale yellow, rarely with pink tones and bright pale green leaves.
The fruits are apple or small pear-shaped and have oblong-lanceolate leaves.
How is the Rose Apple grown?
For its cultivation, we must take into account the following aspects:
- The rose apple must be grown in a relaxed environment, humid tropics and subtropics.
- It loves full sun to partial shade. Withstands shade and light frost.
- For its cultivation, fertile soils are required, with organic matter. The species requires fertile soils when cultivated in elevated areas. It grows very well in nutrient-poor soils and slowly on eroded soils. It can usually spread on dry sandy soils.
- Fresh seeds are used for their propagation. In the same way, if you want to acquire good fruits, they can be propagated by semi-woody cuttings with background heat. At the same time, it can be done by grafting on stems derived by seeds for variations.
- Trees can reproduce fruit within four years when grown by layering.
In a garden
It is a type of plant that, due to its size, can be grown in gardens as a decorative plant in suitable conditions for its good growth.
To grow in pots, you must choose one of adequate size since this plant is fast-growing and can be transplanted later due to its size.
Rose Apple Care
Among your care, we can mention the following:
- Rose apple plants are usually grown around coffee plantations. Within the care that must be given to this plant, it is first necessary to establish the conditions of its habitat, which must be humid. However, it prefers to be in full sun or partial shade, leaning especially to the shade.
- It requires fertile soils, slightly and a large amount of organic matter. It must be taken into account that when this plant is grown in deteriorated soils, its progress is slow and with fewer nutrients, which means that while the grounds are dry and sandy, the plant will not be able to develop efficiently.
- The irrigation system must be provided moderately, avoiding waterlogging.
- The pruning of this tree will depend on the location of its cultivation since, in certain places, it must be done effectively to begin its dense cultivation.
- A fundamental aspect is that insect problems and many serious diseases do not attack this plant.
- The multiplication of this species is done through sets of traces to reproduce fruits.
Rose Apple Harvest
After three years to be harvested later, it enters into production, whose fruits are collected when they are ripe. In the same way, its flowers, leaves, roots and bark are collected for edible and medicinal purposes.
The seeds can be found inside a kind of nut that is located inside the fruit, from 1 to 4 sources that are usually moved by the dragging of the course of the rivers or by the action of the birds when eating the fruits, in Generally the seeds fall and are produced under the parent trees. One kg of seeds reaches between 380 and 400 sources.
These have 50% water in their composition and germinate when they have just fallen, they acquire less viability to grow as they lose moisture and become useless. Since all the seeds retain embryos, the success of seed formation is superior.
Depending on the time of year, the degree of humidity maintained, and the type of soil, the germination time of the seeds has a wide range and varies from 10 days to 120 days.
Its blooms are a rich source of nectar for bees. The flowers remain large and yellowish-white or white, arising in terminal clusters of 2 to 8 flowers.
Properties and benefits of the Rose Apple
The properties are not only found in its fruit but also in its leaves and seeds, which benefit us in the following way:
- The outer part of the bark has emetic properties.
- The purgative properties it possesses are found in the inner part of the bark.
- Due to its high iodine content, its leaves prepare infusions that help lose weight.
- Its anaesthetic properties are found in the seed.
- Helps digestion thanks to its abundant dietary fibre.
- Beneficial to control diabetes due to its organic compound called jambosine, which is an alkaloid that regulates and controls sugar levels.
- Cleanses the liver and kidney thanks to its diuretic properties.
- It increases immunity as it is an excellent immune stimulant, protecting against infectious diseases.
- Thanks to its antioxidant properties, it keeps skin healthy, protecting cells and tissues from oxidative damage.
- It maintains good cardiovascular health due to its high nutrient content, preventing cholesterol levels and diseases such as heart attacks and strokes.
- It prevents cancer, which is attributed to its vitamin A and C content, and some active ingredients that help prevent the development of tumours and cancer cells.
- This fruit is beneficial for pregnant women, thanks to its high content of vitamins and iron, which are necessary to feed the fetus during the gestation process.
- It has a nutritional value with a moderate source of vitamins A and C, phosphorus, iron, fibre, protein, beta-carotene and calcium.
- Its fruit can be eaten fresh, smelling like roses, it is sweet, rich in pectin and not very acidic, which are used to prepare jams, jellies, fruit salads and preserves.
- In the same way, it can be used to flavour creams and sauces.
- The flowers can also be consumed.
- Sometimes they prepare it at home by stewing it with a bit of sugar and consuming it as a dessert.
- Culinary researchers have come up with other ways to use this fruit by cutting it in half without the dough inside, stuffing the halves with meat covered in tomato sauce and a rice stew, seasoning with minced garlic, and then baking for about 20 minutes.
- In addition, the syrup is made to be used as a sauce to flavour cold drinks.
- They are cut in half in wheels caramelized by cooking them in a very thick sugar syrup that adds cinnamon.
- It is considered a tonic for the liver and brain.
- The preparation of the fruit in infusions is used as a diuretic.
- Flowers prepared with sugar decrease fever.
- The seeds are used for dysentery, catarrh and diarrhoea.
- The infusions prepared with the powder of the roasted seeds are used for diabetics.
- The leaves prepared in a decoction are used to be applied to irritated eyes and treat rheumatism.
- The powder of the crushed leaves is used by rubbing it all over the body as a cooling effect in people with smallpox.
- The decoction is administered to calm bronchitis, hoarseness and asthma.
- The root is a potent remedy for epilepsy.
- Its leaves have a high content of iodine, which is prepared infusions or tisanes to be used in slimming diets.
- It is used in many regions as an ornamental plant highly appreciated for combining its leaves, flowers and fruits.
- Wood is not durable against termite attack or moisture.
- Likewise, its wood is used to produce charcoal and firewood.
- The wood is used to elaborate poles, wire fences and stakes, armchairs, construction beams for all types of boats, frames for musical instruments, and is also very popular for turning in general.
- Its rods are used to hang tobacco leaves to dry.
- The new branches are used for making baskets.
- This tree species is used as a windbreak, and despite being invasive, it protects the edges of river paths from deteriorating.
- The bark is used for tanning and yields a brown dye.
- The leaves have a yellow essential oil that can be used as a source of elements for use in the perfume industry.
Economic importance of the Rose Apple
Its commercial exploitation is limited despite its properties. Still, the use of wood has made it of great economic importance because it is used in large industries to manufacture tools, just as its flowers are used in the cosmetic industry to prepare perfumes.
Curiosities of the Rose Apple
- It has been confirmed that the honey from the bees in the flowers has a beautiful texture and flavour, so it is normal to find beekeepers in the surroundings of important groups of these trees.
- The aroma of its fruit is reminiscent of the fragrance of rose petals. Hence its common name is rose apple.
- Curiously, this plant was baptized with the name of pink apple, but it has no resemblance to its fruits or tree.
- Ripe seedless fruits could be extracted four times to prepare rose water, equal to or better than those obtained from rose petals.
What is a rose apple good for?
Rose apple is highly rich in nutrients like protein, fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin A and vitamin C. Its bark contains an alkaloid compound Jambosine, which has therapeutic properties against diabetes. Organic compounds like betulinic acid and Friedelolactone are also present in them.
What do Rose apples taste like?
Are Rose apples poisonous?
Word of Caution: The stems, seeds, and leaves of certain cultivars can be highly toxic and contain trace amounts of cyanide. Consume rose apples from trusted markets and avoid excessive consumption of other parts of the fruit besides the flesh and the skin.
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Rose Apple Origin, description, Cultivation, Care, Properties 2022